Under Indian Insurance Law Fire Insurance

03 August 2021, Tuesday
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A contract of Insurance comes into being when an individual looking for insurance coverage safety enters right into a contract with the insurer to indemnify him towards lack of property by or incidental to fireside and or lightning, explosion, and many others. This is primarily a contract and therefore as is ruled by the overall regulation of the contract. However, it has sure particular options as insurance coverage transactions, reminiscent of utmost religion, insurable curiosity, indemnity, subrogation and contribution, and many others. these rules are widespread in all insurance coverage contracts and are ruled by particular rules of regulation.

FIRE INSURANCE:

According to S. 2(6A), "fire insurance business" means the enterprise of effecting, in any other case than by the way to another class of insurance coverage enterprise, contracts of insurance coverage towards loss by or incidental to fireside or different incidence, typically included among the many dangers insured towards in fireplace insurance coverage enterprise.

According to Halsbury, it's a contract of insurance coverage by which the insurer agrees for consideration to indemnify the assured as much as a sure extent and topic to sure phrases and situations towards loss or harm by the fireplace, which can occur to the property of the assured throughout a selected interval.
Thus, fireplace insurance coverage is a contract whereby the particular person, looking for insurance coverage safety, enters right into a contract with the insurer to indemnify him towards lack of property by or incidental to fireside or lightning, explosion, and many others. This coverage is designed to insure one's property and different objects from loss occurring resulting from full or partial harm by the fireplace.

In its strict sense, a fireplace insurance coverage contract is one:

1. Whose precept object is insurance coverage towards loss or harm occasioned by the fireplace.

2. The extent of insurer's legal responsibility being restricted by the sum assured and never essentially by the extent of loss or harm sustained by the insured: and

3. The insurer having little interest in the protection or destruction of the insured property aside from the legal responsibility undertaken beneath the contract.

LAW GOVERNING FIRE INSURANCE

There isn't any statutory enactment governing fireplace insurance coverage, as in marine insurance coverage regulated by the Indian Marine Insurance Act, 1963. the Indian Insurance Act, 1938 primarily handled regulation of insurance coverage enterprise as such and never with any basic or particular rules of the regulation relating fireplace of different insurance coverage contracts. So additionally the General Insurance Business (Nationalization) Act, 1872. within the absence of any legislative enactment on the topic, the courts in India have in coping with the subject of fireplace insurance coverage and have reliedon judicial choices of Courts and opinions of English Jurists.

In figuring out the worth of property broken or destroyed by the fireplace for the aim of indemnity beneath a coverage of fireplace insurance coverage, it was the worth of the property to the insured, which was to be measured. Prima facies worth was measured by reference to the market worth of the property earlier than and after the loss. However such methodology of the evaluation was not relevant in instances the place the market worth didn't characterize the actual worth of the property to the insured, as the place the property was utilized by the insured as a house or, for carrying enterprise. In such instances, the measure of indemnity was the price of reinstatement. In the case of Lucas v. New Zealand Insurance Co. Ltd.[1] the place the insured property was bought and held as income-producing funding, and due to this fact the courtroom held that the right measure of indemnity for harm to the property by the fireplace was the price of reinstatement.

INSURABLE INTEREST

An individual who's so fascinated about a property as to have profit from its existence and prejudice by its destruction is claimed to have insurable curiosity in that property. Such an individual can ensure the property towards the fireplace.

The curiosity within the property should exist each on the inception in addition to on the time of loss. If it doesn't exist on the graduation of the contract it can't be the subject matter of the insurance coverage and if it doesn't exist at the time of the loss, he suffers no loss and wishes no indemnity. Thus, the place he sells the insured property and it's broken by fireplace thereafter, he suffers no loss.

RISKS COVERED UNDER FIRE INSURANCE POLICY

The date of conclusion of a contract of insurance coverage is the issuance of the coverage is totally different from the acceptance or assumption of danger. Section 64-VB solely lays down broadly that the insurer can't assume danger previous to the date of receipt of premium. Rule 58 of the Insurance Rules, 1939 speaks about the advance fee of premiums because of subpart (!) of Section 64 VB which allows the insurer to imagine the chance from the date onwards. If the proposer didn't need a selected date, it was attainable for the proposer to barter with the insurer about that time period. Precisely, due to this fact, the Apex Court has stated that closing acceptance is that of the assured or the insurer relies upon merely on how during which negotiations for insurance coverage have progressed. Though the next are dangers that appear to have coated Fire Insurance Policy however aren't completely coated beneath the Policy. Some of the contentious areas are as follows:

FIRE: Destruction or harm to the property insured by its personal fermentation, pure heating, or spontaneous combustion or its present process any heating or drying course can't be handled as the harm resulting from the fireplace. E.g., paints or chemical substances in a manufacturing facility present process warmth remedy and consequently broken by the fireplace will not be coated. Further, the burning of property insured by order of any Public Authority is excluded from the scope of the canopy.

LIGHTNING: Lightning could lead to fireplace harm or different forms of harm, reminiscent of a roof damaged by a falling chimney stuck by lightning or cracks in construction resulting from a lightning strike. Both fireplace and different forms of damages attributable to lightning are coated by the coverage.

AIRCRAFT DAMAGE: The loss or harm to property (by the fireplace or in any other case) instantly attributable to plane and different aerial units and/ or articles dropped therefrom is roofed. However, destruction or harm ensuing from stress waves attributable to plane touring at supersonic velocity is excluded from the scope of the coverage.

RIOTS, STRIKES, MALICIOUS AND TERRORISM DAMAGES: The act of any particular person collaboratingwith others in any disturbance of public peace (apart from struggle, invasion, mutiny, civil commotion, and many others.) is construed to be a riot, strike, or a terrorist exercise. The unlawful motion wouldn't be coated beneath the coverage.

STORM, CYCLONE, TYPHOON, TEMPEST, HURRICANE, TORNADO, FLOOD, and INUNDATION: Storm, Cyclone, Typhoon, Tempest, Tornado, and Hurricane are all numerous forms of violent pure disturbances which might be accompanied by thunder or robust winds or heavy rainfall. Flood or Inundation happens when the water rises to an irregular stage. Flood or inundation mustn't solely be understood within the widespread sense of the phrases, i.e., flood in river or lakes, but additionally, accumulation of water resulting from choked drains could be deemed to be flooded.

IMPACT DAMAGE: Impact by any Rail/ Road automobile or animal by direct contact with the insured property is roofed. However, such autos or animals mustn't belong to or own by the insured or any occupier of the premises or their workers whereas appearing in the middle of their employment.

SUBSIDENCE AND LANDSLIDE INCLUDING ROCKSIDE: Destruction or harm attributable to the Subsidence of a part of the positioning on which the property stands or Landslide/ Rockslide is roofed. While Subsidence means sinking of land or constructing to a decrease stage, Landslide means sliding down of land normally on a hill.

However, regular cracking, settlement, or bedding down of latest constructions; settlement or motion of made up the floor; coastal or river erosion; faulty design or workmanship or use of faulty supplies; and demolition, development, structural alterations, or restore of any property or ground-works or excavations, aren't coated.

BURSTING AND/OR OVERFLOWING OF WATER TANKS, APPARATUS, AND PIPES: Loss or harm to the property by water or in any other case on account of bursting or unintended overflowing of water tanks, equipment, and pipes is roofed.

MISSILE TESTING OPERATIONS: Destruction or harm, resulting from influence or in any other case from trajectory/ projectiles about missile testing operations by the Insured or anybody else, is roofed.

LEAKAGE FROM AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER INSTALLATIONS: Damage, attributable to water unintentionally discharged or leaked out from computerized sprinkler installations within the insured's premises, is roofed. However, such destruction or harm attributable to repairs or alterations to the buildings or premises; repairs removing or extension of the sprinkler set up; and defects in development identified to the insured, aren't coated.

BUSH FIRE: This covers harm attributable to burning, whether or not unintended or in any other case, of bush and jungles and the clearing of lands by the fireplace, however excludes destruction or harm, attributable to Forest Fire.

RISKS NOT COVERED BY FIRE INSURANCE POLICY

Claims not maintainable/ coated beneath this coverage are as follows:

o Theft throughout or after the incidence of any insured dangers

o War or nuclear perils

o Electrical breakdowns

o Ordered burning by a public authority

o Subterranean fireplace

o Loss or harm to bullion, treasured stones, curios (worth greater than Rs.10000), plans, drawings, cash, securities, checkbooks, pc information besides if they're categorically included.

o Loss or harm to property moved to a unique location (besides equipment and gear for cleansing, repairs, or renovation for greater than 60 days).

CHARACTERISTICS OF FIRE INSURANCE CONTRACT

A fireplace insurance coverage contract has the next traits particularly:

(a) Fire insurance coverage is a private contract

A fireplace insurance coverage contract doesn't guarantee the protection of the insured property. Its function is to see that the insured doesn't undergo loss for his curiosity within the insured property. Hence, if his reference to the insured property ceases by being transferred to a different particular person, the contract of insurance coverage additionally involves a finish. It will not be so related with the subject material of the insurance coverage as to go routinely to the brand new proprietor to whom the topic is transferred. The contract of fireplace insurance coverage is thus a mereprivate contract between the insured and the insurer for the fee of cash. It may be validly assigned to a different solely with the consent of the insurer.

(b) It iscomplete and indivisible contract.

Where the insurance coverage is binding and its contents of inventory and equipment, the contract is expressly agreed to be divisible. Thus, the place the insured is responsible for breach of responsibility in direction of the insurer in respect of 1 topic issues coated by the coverage, the insurer can keep away from the contract as an entire and never solely in respect of that specific topic matter, until the correct is restricted by the phrases of the coverage.

(c) Cause of fireplace is immaterial

In insuring towards the fireplace, the insured needs to guard him against any loss or detriment which he could undergo upon the incidence of a fireplace, nevertheless, it might be induced. So lengthy because the loss is because of the fireplace inside that means of the coverage, it's immaterial what the reason for fireplace is, typically. Thus, whether or not it was as a result of the fireplace was lighted improperly or was lighted correctly however negligently attended to thereafter or whether or not the fireplace was induced on account of the negligence of the insured or his servants or strangers is immaterial and the insurer is liable to indemnify the insured. In the absence of fraud, the proximate explanation for the loss solely is to be seemed to.

The explanation for the fireplace nevertheless turns into materials to be investigated

(1). Where the fireplace is occasioned not by the negligence of, however by the willful

(2) Where the fireplace is due is to trigger falling with the exception within the contract.

LIMITATION OF TIME

Indemnity insurance coverage was a settlement by the insurer to confer on the insured a contractual proper, which prima facie, got here into existence instantly when the loss was suffered by the occurring of an occasion insured towards, to be put by the insurer into the identical place during which the accused would have had the occasion not occurred however in no higher place. There was a major legal responsibility, i.e. to indemnify, and a secondary legal responsibility i.e. to place the insured in his pre-loss place, both by paying him a specifying quantity or it may be in another method. But the truth that the insurer had a choice as to how during which he would put the insured into pre-loss place didn't imply that he was not liable to indemnify him in a technique or one other, instantly the loss occurred. The major legal responsibility arises on the occurring of the occasion insured towards. So, the time ran from the date of the loss and never from the date on which the coverage was prevented and any go well with filed after that point restrict could be barred by limitation.[2]

WHO MAY INSURE AGAINST FIRE?

Only those that have insurable curiosity in a property can take fireplace insurance coverage thereon. The following are among the many class of individuals who've been held to own insurable curiosity in, property and might insure such property:

1. Owners of property, whether or not sole, or joint proprietor, or accomplice within the agency proudly owning the property. It will not be mandatory that they need to possess additionally. Thus a lesser and a lessee can each ensure it collectively or severely.

2. The vendor and purchaser have each right to insure. The vendor's curiosity continues till the conveyance is accomplished and even thereafter if he has an unpaid vendor's lien over it.

3. The mortgagor and mortgagee have each distinct pursuits within the mortgaged property and might insure, per Lord Esher M.R."The mortgagee does not claim his interest through the mortgagor but under the mortgage which has given him an interest distinct from that of the mortgagor"[3]

4. Trustees are authorized homeowners and beneficiaries of the helpful homeowners of belief property and everyone can insure it.

5. Bailees reminiscent of carriers, pawnbrokers or warehouse males are chargeable for there security of the property entrusted to them and so can insure it.

PERSON NOT ENTITLED TO INSURE

One who has no insurable curiosity in a property can't insure it. For instance:

1. An unsecured creditor can't insure his debtor's property, as a result of his proper is just towards the debtor personally. He can, nevertheless, insure the debtor's life.

2. A shareholder in an organization can't insure the property of the corporate as he has no insurable curiosity in any asset of the corporate even when he's the only real shareholder. As was the case of Macaura v. Northen Assurance Co.[4] Macaura. Because neither as an easy creditor nor as a shareholder had he any insurable curiosity in it.

CONCEPT OF UTMOST FAITH

As all contracts of insurance coverage are contracts of utmost good religion, the proposer for fireplace insurance coverage can be beneath a constructive responsibility to make full disclosure of all materials information and to not make any misrepresentations or misdescriptions thereof in the course of the negotiations for acquiring the coverage. This responsibility of utmost good religion applies equally to the insurer and the insured. There has to be full good religion on the part of the assured. This responsibility to watch utmost good religion is ensured b requiring the proposer to declare that the statements within the proposal type are true, that they shall be the premise of the contract, and that any incorrect or false assertion therein shall keep away from the coverage. The insurer can then depend on them to evaluate the chance and to repair an acceptable premium and settle for the chance or decline it.

The questions within the proposal type for a fireplace coverage are so framed as to get all info which is materials to the insurer to know to assess the chance and repair the premium, that's, all materials information. Thus the proposer is required to give info referring to:

o The proposer's identify and deal with and occupation

o The description of the subject material to be insured ample for the aim of figuring out it together with,

o An outline of the locality the place it's located

o How the property is getting used, whether or not for any manufacturing function or hazardous commerce. and many others

o Whether it has already been insured

o And additionally ant private insurance coverage historical past together with the claims if any made purchase the proposer, and many others.

Apart from questions within the proposal type, the proposer ought to disclose whether or not questioned or not-

1. Any info which might point out the chance of fireplace to be above regular;

2. Any reality which might point out that the insurer's legal responsibility could also be greater than regular may be anticipated reminiscent of the existence of useful manuscripts or paperwork, and many others, and

3. Any info bearing upon the extra; hazard concerned.

The proposer will not be obliged to disclose-

1. Information which the insurer could also be presumed to know within the extraordinary course of his enterprise as an insurer;

2. Facts that tend to indicate that the chance is lesser than in any other case;

3. Facts as to which info is waived by the insurer; and

4. Facts that needn't be disclosed because of a coverage situation.

Thus, assured is beneath a solemn obligation to make full disclosure of fabric information which can be related for the insurer to consider whereas deciding whether or not the proposal needs to be accepted or not. While disclosing the related information, the

DOCTRINE OF PROXIMATE CAUSE

Where extra perils than one act concurrently or successively, it is going to be tough to evaluate the relative impact of every peril or select certainly one of these because of the precise explanation for the loss. In such instances, the doctrine of proximate trigger helps to find out the precise explanation for the loss.
The proximate trigger was outlined in Pawsey v. Scottish Union and National Ins. Co.,[5]as "the active, effective cause that sets in motion a train of events which brings about a result without the intervention of any force started and working actively from a new and independent source." It is a dominant and efficient trigger even though it's not the closest in time. It is due to this fact mandatory when a loss happens to research and verify what's the proximate explanation for the loss to decide whether or not the insurer is answerable for the loss.

PROXIMATE CAUSE OF DAMAGE

A fireplace coverage covers dangers the place harm is induced employing fireplace. The fireplace could also be attributable to lightning, by explosion or implosion. It could also be the result ofriot, strike, or on account of any, malicious act. However, these elements should finally result in a fireplace and the fireplace have to be the proximate trigger of harm. Therefore, a loss attributable to the theft of property by militants wouldn't be coated by the fireplace coverage. The view that the loss was coated beneath the malicious act clause and due to this fact. the insurer was liable to satisfy the declare is untenable, as a result of until and till fireplace is the proximate trigger f harm, no declare beneath a fireplace coverage could be maintainable.[6]

PROCEDURE FOR TAKING A FIRE INSURANCE POLICY

The steps concerned for taking a fireplace insurance coverage coverage are talked about beneath:

1. Selection of the Insurance Company:

Many firms supply fireplace insurance coverages for unexpected occasions. The particular person or the corporate should take care within the choice of an insurance coverage firm. The judgment ought to relax on elements like goodwill, and long-run standing out there. The insurance coverage firms can both be approached instantly or by way of brokers, a few of them who's appointed by the corporate itself.

2. Submission of the Proposal Form:

The particular person or the enterprise proprietor should submit an accomplished prescribed proposal type with the required particulars to the insurance coverage firm for correct consideration and subsequent approval. The info within the Proposal Form needs to be given in good religion and has to be accompanied by paperwork that confirms the precise price of the property or items which might be to be insured. Most of the businesses have their very own personalized Proposal Forms whereby the precise info needs to be offered.

3. Survey of the Property/ Consideration:

Once the duly stuffed Proposal Form is submitted to the insurance coverage firm, it makes an "on the spot" survey of the property or the products which might be the subject material of the insurance coverage. This is normally achieved by the investigators, or the surveyors, who're appointed by the corporate and they should report again to them after a radical analysis and survey. This is crucial to evaluate the chance concerned and calculate the speed of the premium.

4. Acceptance of the Proposal:

Once the detailed and complete report is submitted to the insurance coverage firm by the surveyors and associated officers, the previous makes a radical perusal of the Proposal Form and the report. If the corporate is glad that there isn't any lacuna or foul play or fraud concerned, it formally "accepts" the Proposal Form and directs the insured to pay the primary premium to the corporate. It is to be famous that the insurance coveragecommences after the fee and the acceptance of the premium by the insured and the corporate, respectively. The Insurance Company points a Cover Note after the acceptance of the primary premium.

PROCEDURE ON RECEIPT OF NOTICE OF LOSS

On receipt of the discovery of the loss, the insurer requires the insured to furnish particulars about the loss in a declare from referring to the next information-

1. Circumstances and explanation for the fireplace;

2. Occupancy and state of affairs of the premises during which the fireplace occurred;

3. Insured's curiosity within the insured property; that's capability during which the insured claims and whether or not any others have an interest within the property;

4. Other insurances on the property;

5. Value of every merchandise of the property on the time of loss along with proofs thereof, and worth of the salvage, if any; and

6. Amount claimed

Furnishing such info referring to the declare can be a situation precedent to the legal responsibility of the insurer. The above info will allow the insurer to confirm whether-

(1) The coverage is in pressure;

(2) The peril inflicting the loss is an insured peril;

(3) The property that is broken or misplaced is the insured property.

Rules for calculation of worth of property

The worth of the insured property is-

1) It's worththe time of loss, and

2) At the place of loss, and

3) Its actual or intrinsic worth with no regard for its sentimental value. Loss of potential revenue or different consequential loss is to not be taken under consideration.

FILING OF CLAIMS

How does a declare arises?

After a contract of fireplace insurance coverage has come into existence, a declare could come up by the operation of some insured perils on an unsecured property. There could as well several uninsured perils additionally working concurrently or in the succession of the property. So that the declare needs to be legitimate the next situations have to be fulfilled:

1. The incidence ought to happen because of the operation of an insured peril or the place each insured and different perils operated, the dominant or environment-friendly explanation for the loss will need to have been an insured peril;

2. The operation of the peril should not come inside the scope of the coverage exceptions;

3. The occasion will need to have induced loss or harm of the insured property;

4. The incidence has to be in the course of the forex of the coverage;

5. The insured will need to have fulfilled all of the coverage situations and also needs to adjust to necessities to be fulfilled after the declare had arisen.

MATERIAL FACTS IN FIRE INSURANCE: PREVIOUS CONVICTION OF THE ACCUSED

The felony report of an assured may affect the ethical hazard, which insurers needed to assess, and the non-disclosure of a severe felony offense like theft by the plaintiff would be a fabric non-disclosure.

INSURED'S DUTY ON OUTBREAK OF FIRE, IMPLIED DUTY

On the outbreak of a fireplace, the insured is beneath an implied responsibility to watch good religion in direction of the insurers, and in pursuant ce, of it, the insured should do his finest to avert or decrease the loss. For this function, he should (1) take all affordable measures to place out the fireplace or stop its unfold, and (2) help the fireplace brigade and others of their makes an attempt to take action at any fee not come of their means.
With this object, the insured property could also be eliminated to a spot of security. Any loss or harm the insured property could maintain in the middle of makes an attempt to fight the fireplace or throughout its removal to a spot of security and many others. can be deemed to be loss proximately attributable to the fireplace.

If the insured fails in his responsibility willfully and thereby will increase the burden of the insurer, the insured can be disadvantaged of his proper to revive any indemnity beneath the coverage.[7]

INSURER'S RIGHTS ON THE OUTBREAK OF FIRE

(A) Implied Rights

Corresponding to the insured's duties the insurers have rights by the regulation, because of the legal responsibility they've undertaken to indemnify the insured. Thus the insurers have a proper to-

o Take affordable measures to extinguish the fireplace and to attenuate the loss to property, and

o For that function, to enter upon and take possession of the property.

The insurers can be liable to make good all of the harm the property could maintain in the course of the steps taken to place out the fireplace and so long as it of their possession, as a result of all that's thought of the pure and direct consequence of the fireplace; it has due to this fact been held within the case of Ahmedbhoy Habibhoy v. Bombay Fire Marine Ins. Co [8] that the extent of the harm flowing from the insured peril has to be assessed when the insurer offers again and never as on the time when the peril ceased.

(B) Loss attributable to steps taken to avert the chance

Damage sustained resulting from motion taken to keep away from an insured danger was not a consequence of that danger and was not recoverable until the insured danger had begun to function. In the case of Liverpool and London and Globe Insurance Co. Ltd v. Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd., [9] the Canadian Supreme Court held that "the loss was caused by the fire fighters' mistaken belief that their action was necessary to avert an explosion, and the loss was not recoverable under the insurance policy, which covered only damage caused by fire explosion., and the loss was not recoverable under the insurance policy, which covered only damage caused by fire or explosion."

(C) Express rights

Condition 5- to defend their rights properly insurers have prescribed for higher rights expressly on this situation following which on the occurring of any destruction or harm the insurer and each particular person approved by the insurer could enter, take or preserve possession of the constructing or premises the place the harm has occurred or require it to be delivered to them and take care of it for all affordable functions like analyzing, arranging, eradicating or promote or dispose of the identical for the account of whom it might concern.

When and the way was a declare is made?

In the occasion of a fireplace loss coated beneath the fireplace insurance coverage coverage, the Insured shall instantly give discover thereof to the insurance coverage firm. Within 15 days of the incidence of such loss, the Insured ought to submit a declaration in writing, giving the small print of damages and their estimated values. Details of different insurances on the identical property also need to be declared.

The Insured ought to procure and produce, at his personal expense, any doc like plans, account books, investigation reviews, and many others. on demand by the insurance coverage firm.

HOW INSURANCE MAY CEASE?

Insurance beneath a fireplace coverage could stop in any of the next circumstances, particularly:

(1) Insurer avoiding the coverage by the purpose of the insured making misrepresentation, misdescription or non-disclosure of any materials explicit;

(2) If there's a fall or displacement of any insured constructing vary or construction or half thereof, then on the expiry of seven days wherefrom, besides the place the autumn or displacement was because of the motion of any insured peril; however this, the insurance coverage could also be revived on revised phrases if categorical discover is given to the corporate as quickly because the incidence takes place;

(3) The insurance coverage could also be terminated at any tie on the request of the insured andthe choice of the corporate on 15 days discover to the insured

CONCLUSION

Tangible property is uncovered to quite a few dangers like fireplaces, floods, explosions, earthquakes, riots and struggles, and many others. and insurance coverage safety may be had towards most of those dangers severally or together. The type during which the quilt is expressed is quite a few and different. Fire insurance coverage in its strict sense is anxious with giving safety towards fireplace and fireplace solely. So whereas granting a fireplace insurance coverageall of the requisites want to be fulfilled. The insured are beneath an ethical and authorized obligation to be at utmost good religion and needs to be telling true information and never simply faux grounds solely with the greed to get well cash. Further, all insurance coverage insurance policies assist in the event of a Developing nation. Hence insurance coverage firms have a burden to assist the insured when the insured are in hassle.

REFERENCE:

1. (1983) VR 698 (Supreme Court of Vienna)

2. Callaghan v. Dominion Insurance Co. Ltd. (1997) 2 Lloyd's Rep. 541 (QBD)

3. Small v. U.Okay Marine Insurance Association (1897) 2 QB 311
4. (1925) AC 619

5. (1907) Case.

6. National Insurance Company v. Ashok Kumar Barariio

7. Devlin v. Queen Insurance Co, (1882) 46 UCR 611.

8. (1912) 40 IA 10 PC

9. (1981) 123 DLR (3d) 513 (Supreme Court of Canada)

Books Referred:

1. The Economics of Fire Protection by Ganapathy Ramachandran

2. Modern Insurance Law, by John Birds

3. The Handbook of Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act and Regulations with Allied Laws, by Nagar.

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